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Acceptable Reasons for Dismissal
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05 June   John Doe  
Reasons for dismissal in Belarus

Acceptable Reasons for Dismissal

Do you know that dismissal is a pivotal and often challenging aspect of employment law that demands thorough understanding by…

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Do you know that dismissal is a pivotal and often challenging aspect of employment law that demands thorough understanding by both employers and employees. This process entails ending an employee’s contract due to specific, usually serious, reasons that typically relate to the employee’s behavior or performance. While dismissal can be complex and emotionally charged, it is sometimes necessary to uphold workplace standards and ensure a productive and harmonious environment. 

This article delves into the intricacies of dismissal, exploring the various legitimate grounds for dismissal, strategies for addressing such dismissal in resumes, approaches to responding during job interviews, and the subsequent impact on unemployment benefits. Through this comprehensive overview, both employers and employees can navigate the complexities of termination for cause with greater clarity and confidence.

What is dismissal?

Termination, or dismissal as it’s understood in law, for cause occurs when an employer ends an employee’s contract due to reasons typically related to the employee’s conduct or performance. Unlike other forms of termination, such as layoffs due to downsizing, termination for cause implies that the employee has engaged in actions justifying immediate dismissal without the benefits usually accorded to employees who are laid off or terminated without cause. Examples of such actions include theft, fraud, insubordination, repeated poor performance, and violating company policies.

The legalities surrounding termination for cause are stringent, and employers must ensure they have substantial evidence to support their decision. This often involves detailed documentation of the employee’s behavior, comprehensive performance reviews, and prior warnings. Ensuring fairness and adherence to legal protocols is crucial to avoid potential lawsuits and claims of wrongful termination.

Dismissal is not just a simple end to employment; it is a process that carries significant weight and implications for both parties involved. Employers must navigate a careful and methodical approach to ensure that the termination is justified, legally sound, and executed in a manner that upholds the integrity of the workplace. On the other hand, employees facing termination for cause need to understand their rights, the possible impact on their career, and how to effectively manage the aftermath, including addressing the termination in future job applications and interviews.

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What are the 15 Fair Reasons for Dismissal?

Fair dismissal reasons are critical to maintaining legal and ethical standards in the workplace. These reasons must be substantiated and aligned with company policies and employment laws, particularly in the context of a dismissal case, meaning they should withstand legal scrutiny and adhere to established regulations and procedures.Fair dismissals help ensure that both the employer’s and employee’s rights are respected, providing a basis for maintaining a professional, safe, and equitable work environment. Here are 15 fair reasons for dismissal:


Discrimination in the workplace is a serious offense that can lead to immediate termination or court dismissal. This includes discrimination based on race, gender, age, religion, disability, or any other protected characteristic. Employers are legally required to provide a safe and inclusive work environment, and any employee who violates these principles through discriminatory behavior may be terminated.

Discriminatory behavior can manifest in various forms, such as making offensive comments or jokes, excluding individuals from opportunities based on their protected characteristics, or creating a hostile work environment. Employers must enforce strict anti-discrimination policies to prevent such behavior. These policies should clearly define what constitutes discrimination and outline the consequences for engaging in such actions.

Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment is another grave violation that justifies termination for cause. This includes any unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that creates a hostile work environment. Employers must take all complaints of sexual harassment seriously and conduct thorough investigations.

Sexual harassment can occur in various forms. It can also include subtle forms of harassment, such as suggestive looks or gestures, unwanted touching, or spreading rumors about an individual’s sexual behavior. The impact of sexual harassment on the victim can be profound, leading to emotional distress, decreased job performance, and even long-term psychological trauma. In some cases, victims may find justice through a dismissed court case.

Violence and Harassment

Any form of violence or harassment in the workplace is grounds for immediate dismissal or dismissal in a court case. This includes physical violence, threats, bullying, and any behavior that endangers the safety and well-being of other employees. 

When an incident of violence or harassment is reported, it is crucial for employers to respond promptly and effectively. This involves conducting a thorough and impartial investigation to gather all relevant facts. The investigation should include interviews with the victim, the alleged perpetrator, and any witnesses, as well as a review of any physical evidence or documentation.

Based on the findings of the investigation, appropriate disciplinary action, including employee dismissal, must be taken. This could range from mediation or counseling for less severe cases to immediate termination for serious offenses. Employers should also offer support to the victim, such as counseling services or temporary reassignment, to ensure their well-being and safety.


Insubordination refers to the refusal to obey lawful and reasonable instructions from a supervisor or manager. This can include blatant refusal to perform tasks, arguing with supervisors, and showing disrespect towards authority figures. Insubordination disrupts workplace harmony and can undermine managerial authority, making it a valid reason for termination.

When employees engage in insubordinate behavior, it not only undermines the authority of supervisors but also creates a toxic work environment. Left unchecked, insubordination can erode trust and cohesion within the team, leading to decreased morale and performance. Employers must address instances of insubordination promptly and decisively to maintain a positive and productive workplace culture.

Poor Job Performance

Consistently poor job performance, despite feedback and opportunities for improvement, can lead to dismissal. Employers typically document performance issues through performance reviews and provide employees with a plan to improve. If the employee fails to meet the required standards, termination for cause may be justified.

Poor job performance can be identified through various indicators, such as failing to meet deadlines, producing substandard work, lacking necessary skills, and demonstrating a lack of effort or motivation. It is important for employers to distinguish between occasional lapses and a consistent pattern of poor performance. This involves setting clear performance expectations and regularly reviewing employee output against these benchmarks.


While downsizing is often related to business needs rather than employee behavior, it is still considered a fair case dismissal. Companies may need to reduce their workforce due to financial constraints, restructuring, or changing business priorities.

When implementing downsizing measures, employers must ensure that they follow fair and transparent dismissal procedures. This includes providing affected employees with advance notice of the layoffs, offering support services such as career counseling or job placement assistance, and providing severance packages that are commensurate with the employees’ length of service and level of contribution to the company.

Inappropriate Behavior Outside of Work

Employees’ conduct outside of work can also impact their employment, especially if it affects the company’s reputation or violates the company’s code of conduct. For instance, engaging in illegal activities or public behavior that reflects poorly on the employer can be grounds for dismissal .

To mitigate the risk of misconduct outside of work, employers should clearly communicate their expectations regarding employee conduct and the potential consequences of violating company policies. This may include providing training on the company’s code of conduct, establishing guidelines for appropriate social media use, and reinforcing the importance of upholding the employer’s reputation both on and off the job.

Discourteous Behavior

Persistent discourteous or disrespectful behavior towards colleagues, clients, or customers can justify termination. A professional and respectful work environment is essential for productivity and morale. Employers must address any issues of discourtesy through warnings and corrective actions before resorting to dismissal .


Slander is a form of defamation that involves making false spoken statements that harm a person’s reputation or business. In the workplace context, slanderous behavior can include spreading rumors, making false accusations, or making derogatory remarks about colleagues or the company itself. Such behavior not only damages the individuals targeted but also undermines trust and morale within the organization.

By taking proactive measures to prevent and address slander in the workplace, employers can protect their business interests and create a culture of respect, integrity, and trust. By promoting open communication, fostering a sense of accountability, and holding individuals accountable for their actions, employers can create a workplace where slander has no place, and all employees can thrive.

Poor Corporate Culture 

An employee’s inability to fit into the company culture can be a valid reason for dismissal. This includes not aligning with the company’s values, goals, and working style. Cultural fit is essential for team cohesion and overall workplace harmony. Employers must ensure that employees understand and adhere to the company culture from the outset .

Long-term sick leave

While long-term sick leave is a sensitive issue, it can sometimes lead to dismissal if the employee is unable to perform their job duties despite reasonable accommodations. Employers must handle such cases with compassion and in accordance with disability laws and employment regulations .

Breach of the Employment Contract

Employment contracts serve as legally binding agreements between employers and employees, outlining the terms and conditions of employment. These contracts establish the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provide a framework for the employment relationship. When employees breach these contractual obligations, it can undermine the trust and mutual understanding upon which the relationship is built.

Breaching the terms of the employment contract is a clear ground for dismissal. This can include violating confidentiality agreements, engaging in competing business activities, or failing to adhere to agreed-upon work conditions. Employers must have clear contracts and enforce them consistently to protect their interests .


General misconduct, such as theft, fraud, or any behavior that violates company policies, is grounds for immediate dismissal. Employers must establish clear codes of conduct and enforce them to maintain a safe and ethical workplace. Documentation and fair investigation are crucial to justify termination for misconduct .


Lack of capability to perform the job, despite training and support, can lead to dismissal. This differs from poor performance as it refers to the inherent inability to meet job requirements. Employers must provide adequate training and support before considering dismissal for lack of capability .

Some Other Substantial Reason

There may be other substantial reasons for dismissal that are not explicitly covered but are significant enough to justify termination. This can include conflicts of interest, irreparable breakdowns in working relationships, or legal requirements. Employers must ensure that such reasons are substantial and documented .

Fair dismissal reasons are integral to maintaining a professional, safe, and equitable workplace. Employers must ensure that these reasons are substantiated, documented, and align with company policies and employment laws. By following fair procedures, conducting thorough investigations, and communicating clearly, employers can minimize the risk of disputes and uphold the integrity of their organization. For employees, understanding these reasons can help navigate their rights and responsibilities in the workplace, contributing to a more transparent and fair working environment.

Reasons for dismissal

When Reasons for Termination of Employment Should be Included in a Resume

Including grounds of dismissal on a resume can be a delicate matter. It is generally advisable to focus on presenting your skills, experiences, and achievements in the most positive light. However, there are instances when explaining a termination might be necessary or beneficial, particularly when there’s a dismiss case involved, which may require clarification or context:

  • Transparency
    If the termination was due to a widespread downsizing or company closure, stating this reason can clarify that the termination was not related to your performance or conduct. This can help alleviate any potential concerns from future employers.
  • Learning Experience
    If you were terminated for performance-related reasons but have since improved your skills and demonstrated growth, briefly mentioning this can show your capacity for self-improvement and resilience. It is crucial to frame it in a way that highlights your proactive steps to address the issues and your subsequent success in similar roles.
  • Required by the Employer
    Some job applications may explicitly ask for reasons for leaving previous positions. In such cases, it is essential to provide truthful and concise explanations, focusing on what you learned from the experience and how you have become a better candidate as a result.

What can you tell during the interview

Discussing dismissal during a job interview can be challenging, but it is crucial to handle it with honesty and professionalism. Here are some tips on how to address this topic:

  1. Be Honest
    If asked about your termination, be honest about the circumstances without going into excessive detail. Briefly explain the reason for your termination and focus on what you learned from the experience.
  2. Stay Positive
    Avoid speaking negatively about your previous employer or colleagues. Instead, emphasize the positive aspects of your previous job and how the experience has prepared you for future opportunities.
  3. Emphasize Adaptability
    Highlight your ability to adapt to challenging situations and bounce back from setbacks. Discuss how you have navigated through changes in your career and how you have remained resilient in the face of adversity. Demonstrating your flexibility and willingness to learn from past experiences can reassure the interviewer of your ability to thrive in new environments and overcome obstacles effectively.
  4. Highlight Growth
    Discuss any steps you took to address the issues that led to your termination. This could include additional training, certification courses, or improvements in specific skills. Showing that you have taken responsibility and worked on self-improvement can leave a positive impression.
  5. Reframe the Experience
    Frame the termination as a learning experience. Explain how it has made you a better employee and how it has prepared you for the challenges of the new role you are applying for.

Example Response:

“I was let go from my previous position due to downsizing. While it was a difficult experience, it gave me the opportunity to re-evaluate my career goals and enhance my skill set. I took several professional development courses and gained valuable insights that I believe will make me a strong asset to your team.”

By approaching the topic of termination with honesty, positivity, and a focus on personal growth, you can effectively address any concerns the interviewer may have and present yourself as a capable and resilient candidate. 

How Dismissal Impacts Unemployment Benefits

Dismissal can significantly impact an employee’s eligibility for unemployment benefits. Generally, employees who are dismissed for reasons related to misconduct or poor performance may be disqualified from receiving unemployment benefits. Each state has specific laws and regulations governing unemployment benefits, and the definition of misconduct can vary .

  • Misconduct
    If an employee is terminated for misconduct, such as theft, fraud, or violation of company policies, they are typically ineligible for unemployment benefits. Misconduct is seen as a voluntary action that disqualifies the employee from benefits.
  • Poor Performance
    Termination for poor performance may also affect eligibility for benefits, though it depends on the circumstances. If the employee can demonstrate that they made a good-faith effort to meet job expectations and that the termination was not due to willful neglect, they may still qualify for benefits.

Appeal Process

Employees who are denied unemployment benefits due to termination for cause have the right to appeal the decision. During the appeal process, they can present evidence and arguments to support their case. It is crucial to provide documentation and any witnesses that can attest to the circumstances of the termination.

Understanding the grounds for termination of employment and the associated legal implications is crucial for both employers and employees. Termination for cause involves specific reasons that justify ending an employee’s contract without the usual benefits. Fair reasons for dismissal range from discrimination and sexual harassment to poor job performance and insubordination. When addressing termination in resumes and job interviews, honesty and a focus on growth and learning are key. Lastly, termination for cause can impact unemployment benefits, but employees have the right to appeal decisions. By comprehending these aspects, employers can ensure fair and lawful termination processes, while employees can better manage their career paths post-termination.

About the author

John Doe

CEO and Cofounder of ND Labs

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